Intravenous anesthesia

Abstract

Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2004 Dec. 8(4): 239-244
ⓒ Korean Society for Intravenous Anesthesia
  
 
 
The Effects of 1% Lidocaine on Pain Induced by Rocuronium
Dae-geun Jeon, M.D., Jong-il Eun, M.D., and Sang-wook Park, M.D.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan, Korea
 

Background: Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant with a rapid onset. It is very useful for short operations and rapid airway control. But rocuronium induces injection pain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine with tourniquet application on pain induced by rocuronium.
Methods: Group 1 (n = 30) received normal saline after 20 seconds of venous stasis, Group 2 (n = 30) received 1% lidocaine and occlusion of vein for 10 seconds, Group 3 (n = 30) received 1% lidocaine and occlusion of vein for 20 seconds, Group MH (n = 30) was all men with IV access located in their hands, Group MA (n=30) was all men with IV access located in their arms, Group WH (n = 30) was all women with IV access located in their hands, Group WA (n = 30) was all women with IV access located in their arms, Group H (n = 30) had IV accesses in their hands, Group A (n = 30) had IV accesses in their arms, and received normal saline and occlusion of vein for 20 seconds each. After the occlusion was released, 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium at room temperature was given into a freely running IV line for about 5 seconds. The patients were observed and asked if they felt pain in their arms. The rocuronium induced pain was assessed using a 4-grade scales (0 3). Then all patients received 5 ml/kg of 2.5% thiopental sodium and general anesthesia was maintained with N2O-O2 and sevoflurane.
Results: The pain score was significantly higher in group 1, group WA and group H. There were no differences between group 2 and 3, MH and WH.
Conclusions: Rocuronium induces pain when injected. Lidcaine pretreatment significantly reduces the severity of the pain. Rocuronium induced pain was more severe in women than in men with IV accesses in the arm. As well, it was more severe in patients who had IV accesses in their hands than those who had IV accesses in their arms.
 
Key words : 4-grade scales, lidocaine, rocuronium induced pain, tourniquet
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